From January to June 1986, 158 patients with extradural haematoma were admitted to our neurosurgical unit. They were divided into four groups, reflecting their clinical features: A. 46 cases (GCS less than or equal to 12) in whom a condition of coma/stupor had occurred at the time of injury and persisted to the time of surgical decompression; B. 41 cases showing deterioration of consciousness (GCS less than or equal to 12) after a lucid interval; C. 46 cases of 'asymptomatic' patients (GCS consistently greater than or equal to 13, no neurological deficits, no signs of increased intracranial pressure); D. 25 cases arriving at our unit in a conscious state, but restless and/or with neurological deficits. The location of the haematoma (temporal in only 35%), the incidence of associated lesions such as cerebral lacerations and/or subdural effusion (30.3%), and the age of the patients (28.4 +/- 18.4 years were similar in the four groups. The size of the haematoma and the displacement of the midline structures were significantly greater in comatose/stuporose patients (groups A and B). The overall mortality was 12% (19 patients), with a morbidity of 14% (22 patients). Factors statistically significant in determining mortality and morbidity were: degree of coma as assessed by GCS; displacement of midline structures: age of the patient; size of the haematoma. There was no mortality or morbidity in those patients who remained conscious (groups C and D). A pronounced increase in the number of CT examinations performed in patients with head injury in our area of referral has caused profound changes in the population of patients admitted to our centre, resulting in a greater proportion of extradural haematomas detected in patients who are still conscious, and in whom operative mortality and morbidity are negligible. One further therapeutic implication of the increase in the number of patients with EDH admitted while asymptomatic may be the option of conservative management in those patients who remain in a good clinical condition, with haematomas of less than 1 cm in thickness and no displacement of midline structures.
|Titolo:||Extradural haematomas: an analysis of the changing characteristics of patients admitted from 1980 to 1986. Diagnostic and therapeutic implications in 158 cases.|
|Data di pubblicazione:||1988|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|