The number of peer-reviewed articles published during the 2016 solar year and retrieved using the "autoimmunity" key word remained stable while gaining a minimal edge among the immunology articles. Nonetheless, the quality of the publications has been rising significantly and, importantly, acquisitions have become available through scientific journals dedicated to immunology or autoimmunity. Major discoveries have been made in the fields of systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, autoimmunity of the central nervous system, vasculitis, and seronegative spondyloarthrithritides. Selected examples include the role of IL17-related genes and long noncoding RNAs in systemic lupus erythematosus or the effects of anti-pentraxin 3 (PTX3) in the treatment of this paradigmatic autoimmune condition. In the case of rheumatoid arthritis, there have been reports of the role of induced regulatory T cells (iTregs) or fibrocytes and T cell interactions with exciting implications. The large number of studies dealing with neuroimmunology pointed to Th17 cells, CD56(bright) NK cells, and low-level TLR2 ligands as involved in multiple sclerosis, along with a high salt intake or the micriobiome-derived Lipid 654. Lastly, we focused on the rare vasculitides to which numerous studies were devoted and suggested that unsuspected cell populations, including monocytes, mucosal-associated invariant T cells, and innate lymphoid cells, may be crucial to ANCA-associated manifestations. This brief and arbitrary discussion of the findings published in 2016 is representative of a promising background for developments that will enormously impact the work of laboratory scientists and physicians at an exponential rate.
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