Immune-mediated inner ear disease can be primary, when the autoimmune response is against the inner ear, or secondary. The latter is characterized by the involvement of the ear in the presence of systemic autoimmune conditions. Sensorineural hearing loss is the most common audiovestibular symptom associated with systemic autoimmune diseases, although conductive hearing impairment may also be present. Hearing loss may present in a sudden, slowly, rapidly progressive or fluctuating form, and is mostly bilateral and asymmetric. Hearing loss shows a good response to corticosteroid therapy that may lead to near-complete hearing restoration. Vestibular symptoms, tinnitus, and aural fullness can be found in patients with systemic autoimmune diseases; they often mimic primary inner ear disorders such as Menière’s disease and mainly affect both ears simultaneously. Awareness of inner ear involvement in systemic autoimmune diseases is essential for the good response shown to appropriate treatment. However, it is often misdiagnosed due to variable clinical presentation, limited knowledge, sparse evidence, and lack of specific diagnostic tests. The aim of this review is to analyse available evidence, often only reported in the form of case reports due to the rarity of some of these conditions, of the different clinical presentations of audiological and vestibular symptoms in systemic autoimmune diseases.

Audio-vestibular symptoms in systemic autoimmune diseases

DE VIRGILIO, ARMANDO;
2018

Abstract

Immune-mediated inner ear disease can be primary, when the autoimmune response is against the inner ear, or secondary. The latter is characterized by the involvement of the ear in the presence of systemic autoimmune conditions. Sensorineural hearing loss is the most common audiovestibular symptom associated with systemic autoimmune diseases, although conductive hearing impairment may also be present. Hearing loss may present in a sudden, slowly, rapidly progressive or fluctuating form, and is mostly bilateral and asymmetric. Hearing loss shows a good response to corticosteroid therapy that may lead to near-complete hearing restoration. Vestibular symptoms, tinnitus, and aural fullness can be found in patients with systemic autoimmune diseases; they often mimic primary inner ear disorders such as Menière’s disease and mainly affect both ears simultaneously. Awareness of inner ear involvement in systemic autoimmune diseases is essential for the good response shown to appropriate treatment. However, it is often misdiagnosed due to variable clinical presentation, limited knowledge, sparse evidence, and lack of specific diagnostic tests. The aim of this review is to analyse available evidence, often only reported in the form of case reports due to the rarity of some of these conditions, of the different clinical presentations of audiological and vestibular symptoms in systemic autoimmune diseases.
hearing loss
tinnitus
autoimmunity
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11699/32090
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