MicroRNA (miRNA) is the term used to describe endogenous, short (19-25 nucleotide long) regulatory RNA molecules that govern gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. They were initially thought of as a curiosity limited to the developmental timing of roundworms when the founding members were discovered in the early 1990s. They are now acknowledged as a fundamental regulator of gene expression for the development of many organisms. The importance of miRNA in biological processes of mammals other than development has recently surfaced, and the first report on the role of miRNAs in the heart was published in 2005. intense studies are being conducted to elucidate the physiologic pathways regulated by miRNAs in this organ and how miRNAs are involved in cardiovascular pathology. Here, we comprehensively review what has been published on mirNA and heart disease to date.
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