The role of glutamate in quantal release at the cytoneural junction was examined by measuring mEPSPs and afferent spikes at the posterior canal in the intact frog labyrinth. Release was enhanced by exogenous glutamate, or dl-TBOA, a blocker of glutamate reuptake. Conversely, drugs acting on ionotropic glutamate receptors did not affect release; the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPA-R) blocker CNQX decreased mEPSP size in a dose-dependent manner; the NMDA-R blocker d-AP5 at concentrations <200 µM did not affect mEPSP size, either in the presence or absence of Mg and glycine. In isolated hair cells, glutamate did not modify Ca currents. Instead, it systematically reduced the compound delayed potassium current, IKD, whereas the metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR)-II inverse agonist, (2S)-2-amino-2-[(1S,2S)-2-carboxycycloprop-1-yl]-3-(xanth-9-yl)propanoic acid (LY341495), increased it. Given mGluR-II decrease cAMP production, these finding are consistent with the reported sensitivity of IKD to protein kinase A (PKA)-mediated phosphorylation. LY341495 also enhanced transmitter release, presumably through phosphorylation-mediated facilitation of the release machinery. The observed enhancement of release by glutamate confirms previous literature data, and can be attributed to activation of mGluR-I that promotes Ca release from intracellular stores. Glutamate-induced reduction in the repolarizing IKD may contribute to facilitation of release. Overall, glutamate exerts both a positive feedback action on mGluR-I, through activation of the phospholipase C (PLC)/IP3 path, and the negative feedback, by interfering with substrate phosphorylation through Gi/0-coupled mGluRs-II/III. The positive feedback prevails, which may explain the increase in overall rates of release observed during mechanical stimulation (symmetrical in the excitatory and inhibitory directions). The negative feedback may protect the junction from over-activation.
|Titolo:||Pre- and Postsynaptic Effects of Glutamate in the Frog Labyrinth.|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2018|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|