The understanding and treatment of shoulder instability comprise a rapidly evolving area of interest in orthopaedics. Evaluation methods are becoming more specific in showing the exact pathologies causing the symptoms. Magnetic resonance arthrography and arthroscopy have contributed to this development. The patient with an unstable shoulder should be thoroughly evaluated through their history and specific clinical tests of the shoulder as well as the scapulothoracic joint. Often, shoulder instability can be classified after this primary evaluation. Magnetic resonance arthrography and arthroscopy are the gold standards in soft-tissue evaluation, whereas specialized radiographic examinations and computed tomography scans are used to assess bony defects. Patients are treated according to the pathology found on preoperative or pretreatment evaluation. Multiple factors need to be considered before the treatment program is instituted, including the patient's age, activity demands, associated pathology and dysfunction, soft-tissue pathology, degree of instability, direction, frequency, and etiology. Treatment can be nonoperative or arthroscopic or open repair. Soft-tissue pathology and bony defects should be addressed, and the surgeon's preferred method and skills are important in choosing the right treatment for the patient. The patient should be informed about possible complications, restrictions during the treatment period, and the prognosis for the particular type of instability. To improve progress in shoulder orthopaedics, one of the most important factors can be a universal agreement on an outcome measurement tool that is well designed and validated.
I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.