Cardiovascular infections are associated with high morbidity and mortality. Early diagnosis is crucial for adequate patient management, as early treatment improves the prognosis. The diagnosis cannot be made on the basis of a single symptom, sign, or diagnostic test. Rather, the diagnosis requires a multidisciplinary discussion in addition to the integration of clinical signs, microbiology data, and imaging data. The application of multimodality imaging, including molecular imaging techniques, has improved the sensitivity to detect infections involving heart valves and vessels and implanted cardiovascular devices while also allowing for early detection of septic emboli and metastatic infections before these become clinically apparent. In this review, we describe data supporting the use of a Multimodality, Multitracer, and Multidisciplinary approach (the 3M approach) to cardiovascular infections. In particular, the role of white blood cell SPECT/CT and [F-18]FDG PET/CT in most prevalent and clinically relevant cardiovascular infections will be discussed. In addition, the needs of advanced hybrid equipment, dedicated imaging acquisition protocols, specific expertise for image reading, and interpretation in this field are discussed, emphasizing the need for a specific reference framework within a Cardiovascular Multidisciplinary Team Approach to select the best test or combination of tests for each specific clinical situation. (C) 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

The "3M" Approach to Cardiovascular Infections: Multimodality, Multitracers, and Multidisciplinary

Sollini, Martina;Rossi, Alexia;
2018-01-01

Abstract

Cardiovascular infections are associated with high morbidity and mortality. Early diagnosis is crucial for adequate patient management, as early treatment improves the prognosis. The diagnosis cannot be made on the basis of a single symptom, sign, or diagnostic test. Rather, the diagnosis requires a multidisciplinary discussion in addition to the integration of clinical signs, microbiology data, and imaging data. The application of multimodality imaging, including molecular imaging techniques, has improved the sensitivity to detect infections involving heart valves and vessels and implanted cardiovascular devices while also allowing for early detection of septic emboli and metastatic infections before these become clinically apparent. In this review, we describe data supporting the use of a Multimodality, Multitracer, and Multidisciplinary approach (the 3M approach) to cardiovascular infections. In particular, the role of white blood cell SPECT/CT and [F-18]FDG PET/CT in most prevalent and clinically relevant cardiovascular infections will be discussed. In addition, the needs of advanced hybrid equipment, dedicated imaging acquisition protocols, specific expertise for image reading, and interpretation in this field are discussed, emphasizing the need for a specific reference framework within a Cardiovascular Multidisciplinary Team Approach to select the best test or combination of tests for each specific clinical situation. (C) 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
2018
Cardiovascular Infections
Humans
Interdisciplinary Research
Multimodal Imaging
Radioactive Tracers
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11699/59393
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