Interleukins (IL)-4 and -13 play a pivotal role in the pathobiology of type-2 asthma. Indeed, IL-4 is crucially involved in Th2 cell differentiation, immunoglobulin (Ig) class switching and eosinophil trafficking. IL-13 cooperates with IL-4 in promoting IgE synthesis, and also induces nitric oxide (NO) production, goblet cell metaplasia and fibroblast proliferation, as well as elicits contractile responses and hyperplasia of airway smooth muscle cells.IL-4 and IL-13 share common signaling pathways, activated by the binding of both cytokines to receptor complexes including the alpha-subunit of the IL-4 receptor (IL-4R alpha). Therefore, the subsequent receptor dimerization is responsible for the pathophysiologic effects of IL-4 and IL-13. By selectively blocking IL-4R alpha, the fully human IgG4 monoclonal antibody dupilumab behaves as a dual receptor antagonist of both IL-4 and IL-13. Through this mechanism of action, dupilumab exerts effective therapeutic actions in type-2 inflammation, thus decreasing asthma exacerbations, FeNO (fractional exhaled NO) levels, and the intake of oral corticosteroids (OCS). In addition to being approved for the add-on biological therapy of severe asthma, dupilumab has also been licensed for the treatment of nasal polyposis and atopic dermatitis.

Interleukins 4 and 13 in Asthma: Key Pathophysiologic Cytokines and Druggable Molecular Targets

Heffler, Enrico;
2022

Abstract

Interleukins (IL)-4 and -13 play a pivotal role in the pathobiology of type-2 asthma. Indeed, IL-4 is crucially involved in Th2 cell differentiation, immunoglobulin (Ig) class switching and eosinophil trafficking. IL-13 cooperates with IL-4 in promoting IgE synthesis, and also induces nitric oxide (NO) production, goblet cell metaplasia and fibroblast proliferation, as well as elicits contractile responses and hyperplasia of airway smooth muscle cells.IL-4 and IL-13 share common signaling pathways, activated by the binding of both cytokines to receptor complexes including the alpha-subunit of the IL-4 receptor (IL-4R alpha). Therefore, the subsequent receptor dimerization is responsible for the pathophysiologic effects of IL-4 and IL-13. By selectively blocking IL-4R alpha, the fully human IgG4 monoclonal antibody dupilumab behaves as a dual receptor antagonist of both IL-4 and IL-13. Through this mechanism of action, dupilumab exerts effective therapeutic actions in type-2 inflammation, thus decreasing asthma exacerbations, FeNO (fractional exhaled NO) levels, and the intake of oral corticosteroids (OCS). In addition to being approved for the add-on biological therapy of severe asthma, dupilumab has also been licensed for the treatment of nasal polyposis and atopic dermatitis.
IL-13
IL-4
IL-4 receptor
dupilumab
severe asthma
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11699/65763
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