Purpose of reviewThis article examines the dynamics and factors underlying hepatitis C virus (HCV) resistance, along with their impact on daily clinical management of HCV-infected patients.Recent findingsAcross available treatment-regimens, GT-3 is the most difficult-to-cure genotype, but also genotype-1a may show lower success-rates compared with genotype-1b. Natural resistance to NS3, NS5A and NS5B inhibitors may contribute to treatment failures. The Q80K NS3-protease mutation affects sensibility to simeprevir+peg-interferon/ribavirin combinations. It reaches up to 48% prevalence in genotype-1a in some studies (but it is lower in other). Resistant variants (particularly in NS5A) developed at failure can persist, in a substantial proportion of patients, even 3 years after treatment-discontinuation, potentially affecting readministration of the same direct-acting antiviral agent (DAA)-class. This will become an issue for those patients failing all-oral regimens with multiple-resistant viruses.SummaryRecent data support the importance of an accurate genotype and genotype-1 subtype (1a/1b) assignment prior therapy. Resistance testing at baseline has no clear indication so far in clinical practice for all-DAA regimens selection, while it remains a valuable option at the retreatment of patients who failed DAA-containing regimens, provided that data are generated to inform treatment decisions based on the results of resistance testing. In this context, long-term RAVs persistence after failure should be taken into account.

Resistance to direct-acting antiviral agents: clinical utility and significance

Cento, Valeria;
2015

Abstract

Purpose of reviewThis article examines the dynamics and factors underlying hepatitis C virus (HCV) resistance, along with their impact on daily clinical management of HCV-infected patients.Recent findingsAcross available treatment-regimens, GT-3 is the most difficult-to-cure genotype, but also genotype-1a may show lower success-rates compared with genotype-1b. Natural resistance to NS3, NS5A and NS5B inhibitors may contribute to treatment failures. The Q80K NS3-protease mutation affects sensibility to simeprevir+peg-interferon/ribavirin combinations. It reaches up to 48% prevalence in genotype-1a in some studies (but it is lower in other). Resistant variants (particularly in NS5A) developed at failure can persist, in a substantial proportion of patients, even 3 years after treatment-discontinuation, potentially affecting readministration of the same direct-acting antiviral agent (DAA)-class. This will become an issue for those patients failing all-oral regimens with multiple-resistant viruses.SummaryRecent data support the importance of an accurate genotype and genotype-1 subtype (1a/1b) assignment prior therapy. Resistance testing at baseline has no clear indication so far in clinical practice for all-DAA regimens selection, while it remains a valuable option at the retreatment of patients who failed DAA-containing regimens, provided that data are generated to inform treatment decisions based on the results of resistance testing. In this context, long-term RAVs persistence after failure should be taken into account.
drug resistance testing
genotype variability
natural resistance
persistence of resistant variants
Antiviral Agents
Genotype
Genotyping Techniques
Hepacivirus
Hepatitis C, Chronic
Humans
Microbial Sensitivity Tests
Mutation, Missense
Viral Nonstructural Proteins
Drug Resistance, Viral
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11699/65795
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