Background: Because of the extreme genetic variability of hepatitis C virus (HCV), we analyzed whether specific HCV-genotypes are differently prone to develop resistance to linear and macrocyclic protease-inhibitors (PIs).Methods: The study includes 1568 NS3-protease sequences, isolated from PI-naive patients infected with HCV-genotypes 1a (N=621), 1b (N=474), 2 (N=72), 3 (N=268), 4 (N=54)5 (N=6), and 6 (N=73). Genetic-barrier was calculated as the sum of nucleotide-transitions (score=1) and/or nucleotide-transversions (score=2.5) required for drug-resistance-mutations emergence. Forty-three mutations associated with PIs-resistance were analyzed (36A/M/L/G-41R-43S/V-54A/S/V-55A-Q80K/R/L/H/G-109K-138T-155K/Q/T/I/M/S/G/L-156T/V/G/S-158I-168A/H/T/V/E/I/G/N/Y-170A/T-175L). Structural analyses on NS3-protease and on putative RNA-models have been also performed.Results: Overall, NS3-protease was moderately conserved, with 85/181 (47.0%) amino-acids showing <1% variability. The catalytic-triad (H57-D81-S139) and 6/13 resistance-associated positions (Q41-F43-R109-R155-A156-V158) were fully conserved (variability <= 1%). Structural-analysis highlighted that most of the NS3-residues involved in drug-stabilization were highly conserved, while 7 PI-resistance residues, together with selected residues located in proximity of the PI-binding pocket, were highly variable among HCV-genotypes. Four resistance-mutations (80K/G-36L-175L)were found as natural polymorphisms in selected genotypes (80K present in 41.6% HCV-1a, 100% of HCV-5 and 20.6% HCV-6; 80G present in 94.4% HCV-2; 36L present in 100% HCV-3-5 and >94% HCV-2-4; 175L present in 100% HCV-1a-3-5 and >97% HCV-2-4). Furthermore, HCV-3 specifically showed non-conservative polymorphisms (R123T-D168Q) at two drug-interacting positions. Regardless of HCV-genotype, 13 PIs resistance-mutations were associated with low genetic-barrier, requiring only 1 nucleotide-substitution (41R-43S/V-54A-55A-80R-156V/T: score=1; 54S-138T-156S/G-168E/H: score=2.5). By contrast, by using HCV-1b as reference genotype, nucleotide-heterogeneity led to a lower genetic-barrier for the development of some drug-resistance-mutations in HCV-1a (36M-155G/I/K/M/S/T-170T), HCV-2 (36M-80K-155G/I/K/S/T-170T), HCV-3 (155G/I/K/M/S/T-170T), HCV-4-6 (155I/S/L), and HCV-5 (80G-155G/I/K/M/S/T).Conclusions: The high degree of HCV genetic variability makes HCV-genotypes, and even subtypes, differently prone to the development of PIs resistance-mutations. Overall, this can account for different responsiveness of HCV-genotypes to PIs, with important clinical implications in tailoring individualized and appropriate regimens.

HCV genotypes are differently prone to the development of resistance to linear and macrocyclic protease inhibitors

Cento, Valeria;
2012

Abstract

Background: Because of the extreme genetic variability of hepatitis C virus (HCV), we analyzed whether specific HCV-genotypes are differently prone to develop resistance to linear and macrocyclic protease-inhibitors (PIs).Methods: The study includes 1568 NS3-protease sequences, isolated from PI-naive patients infected with HCV-genotypes 1a (N=621), 1b (N=474), 2 (N=72), 3 (N=268), 4 (N=54)5 (N=6), and 6 (N=73). Genetic-barrier was calculated as the sum of nucleotide-transitions (score=1) and/or nucleotide-transversions (score=2.5) required for drug-resistance-mutations emergence. Forty-three mutations associated with PIs-resistance were analyzed (36A/M/L/G-41R-43S/V-54A/S/V-55A-Q80K/R/L/H/G-109K-138T-155K/Q/T/I/M/S/G/L-156T/V/G/S-158I-168A/H/T/V/E/I/G/N/Y-170A/T-175L). Structural analyses on NS3-protease and on putative RNA-models have been also performed.Results: Overall, NS3-protease was moderately conserved, with 85/181 (47.0%) amino-acids showing <1% variability. The catalytic-triad (H57-D81-S139) and 6/13 resistance-associated positions (Q41-F43-R109-R155-A156-V158) were fully conserved (variability <= 1%). Structural-analysis highlighted that most of the NS3-residues involved in drug-stabilization were highly conserved, while 7 PI-resistance residues, together with selected residues located in proximity of the PI-binding pocket, were highly variable among HCV-genotypes. Four resistance-mutations (80K/G-36L-175L)were found as natural polymorphisms in selected genotypes (80K present in 41.6% HCV-1a, 100% of HCV-5 and 20.6% HCV-6; 80G present in 94.4% HCV-2; 36L present in 100% HCV-3-5 and >94% HCV-2-4; 175L present in 100% HCV-1a-3-5 and >97% HCV-2-4). Furthermore, HCV-3 specifically showed non-conservative polymorphisms (R123T-D168Q) at two drug-interacting positions. Regardless of HCV-genotype, 13 PIs resistance-mutations were associated with low genetic-barrier, requiring only 1 nucleotide-substitution (41R-43S/V-54A-55A-80R-156V/T: score=1; 54S-138T-156S/G-168E/H: score=2.5). By contrast, by using HCV-1b as reference genotype, nucleotide-heterogeneity led to a lower genetic-barrier for the development of some drug-resistance-mutations in HCV-1a (36M-155G/I/K/M/S/T-170T), HCV-2 (36M-80K-155G/I/K/S/T-170T), HCV-3 (155G/I/K/M/S/T-170T), HCV-4-6 (155I/S/L), and HCV-5 (80G-155G/I/K/M/S/T).Conclusions: The high degree of HCV genetic variability makes HCV-genotypes, and even subtypes, differently prone to the development of PIs resistance-mutations. Overall, this can account for different responsiveness of HCV-genotypes to PIs, with important clinical implications in tailoring individualized and appropriate regimens.
Amino Acid Sequence
Antiviral Agents
Drug Resistance, Viral
Genetic Variation
Hepacivirus
Hepatitis C
Humans
Molecular Docking Simulation
Molecular Sequence Data
Nucleic Acid Conformation
Protease Inhibitors
Protein Conformation
RNA, Viral
Sequence Alignment
Viral Nonstructural Proteins
Genotype
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11699/65867
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