Background Since SARS-CoV-2 spread, evidence regarding sex differences in progression and prognosis of COVID-19 have emerged. Besides this, studies on patients' clinical characteristics have described electrolyte imbalances as one of the recurrent features of COVID-19. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study on all patients admitted to the emergency department (ED) from 1 March to 31 May 2020 who had undergone a blood gas analysis and a nasopharyngeal swab test for SARS-CoV-2 by rtPCR. We defined positive patients as cases (n = 710) and negatives as controls (n = 619), for a total number of patients of 1.329. The study was approved by the local ethics committee Area 3 Milan. Data were automatically extracted from the hospital laboratory SQL-based repository in anonymised form. We considered as outcomes potassium (K+), sodium (Na+), chlorine (Cl-) and calcium (Ca++) as continuous and as categorical variables, in their relation with age, sex and SARS-CoV-2 infection status. Results We observed a higher prevalence of hypokalaemia among patients positive for SARS-CoV-2 (13.7% vs 6% of negative subjects). Positive patients had a higher probability to be admitted to the ED with hypokalaemia (OR 2.75, 95% CI 1.8-4.1, P < .0001) and women were twice as likely to be affected than men (OR 2.43, 95% CI 1.67-3.54, P < .001). Odds ratios for positive patients to manifest with an alteration in serum Na+ was (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.17-2.35, P < .001) and serum chlorine (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.03-2.69, P < .001). Notably, OR for positive patients to be hypocalcaemic was 7.2 (95% CI 4.8-10.6, P < .0001) with a low probability for women to be hypocalcaemic (OR 0.63, 95% CI 0.4-0.8, P = .005). Conclusions SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with a higher prevalence of hypokalaemia, hypocalcaemia, hypochloraemia and sodium alterations. Hypokalaemia is more frequent among women and hypocalcaemia among men.

Sex differences in electrolyte imbalances caused by SARS-CoV-2: A cross-sectional study

Cento, Valeria;
2021

Abstract

Background Since SARS-CoV-2 spread, evidence regarding sex differences in progression and prognosis of COVID-19 have emerged. Besides this, studies on patients' clinical characteristics have described electrolyte imbalances as one of the recurrent features of COVID-19. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study on all patients admitted to the emergency department (ED) from 1 March to 31 May 2020 who had undergone a blood gas analysis and a nasopharyngeal swab test for SARS-CoV-2 by rtPCR. We defined positive patients as cases (n = 710) and negatives as controls (n = 619), for a total number of patients of 1.329. The study was approved by the local ethics committee Area 3 Milan. Data were automatically extracted from the hospital laboratory SQL-based repository in anonymised form. We considered as outcomes potassium (K+), sodium (Na+), chlorine (Cl-) and calcium (Ca++) as continuous and as categorical variables, in their relation with age, sex and SARS-CoV-2 infection status. Results We observed a higher prevalence of hypokalaemia among patients positive for SARS-CoV-2 (13.7% vs 6% of negative subjects). Positive patients had a higher probability to be admitted to the ED with hypokalaemia (OR 2.75, 95% CI 1.8-4.1, P < .0001) and women were twice as likely to be affected than men (OR 2.43, 95% CI 1.67-3.54, P < .001). Odds ratios for positive patients to manifest with an alteration in serum Na+ was (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.17-2.35, P < .001) and serum chlorine (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.03-2.69, P < .001). Notably, OR for positive patients to be hypocalcaemic was 7.2 (95% CI 4.8-10.6, P < .0001) with a low probability for women to be hypocalcaemic (OR 0.63, 95% CI 0.4-0.8, P = .005). Conclusions SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with a higher prevalence of hypokalaemia, hypocalcaemia, hypochloraemia and sodium alterations. Hypokalaemia is more frequent among women and hypocalcaemia among men.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11699/65893
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