Introduction: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in patients with hip fractures is associated with increased incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hemostatic alterations of COVID-19 that are associated with a higher thrombotic risk using rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM). Methods: A retrospective observational study was performed including 20 COVID-19 patients with hip fractures. To compare the coagulopathy of patients with mild COVID-19 and hip fractures with the coagulopathy associated with each of these two conditions separately, we used two previously recruited groups of patients; 198 hip fracture patients without COVID-19 and 21 COVID-19 patients without hip fractures. The demographics, clinical parameters, conventional coagulation parameters and ROTEM findings of the three groups were analyzed and compared. Results: COVID-19 hip fracture patients had higher amplitude of clot firmness at 10 min (p < 0.001), higher alpha angle (p < 0.001), higher lysis index at 60 min (p < 0.001), and shorter clot formation time (p < 0.001) than non-COVID-19 hip fracture patients, indicating increased clot strength and impaired fibrinolysis due to COVID-19. The value of lysis index at 60 min (99%) in COVID-19 patients with hip fractures was consistent with fibrinolysis shut down. Multivariable linear regression analysis further confirmed that COVID-19 resulted in increased amplitude of clot firmness at 10 min (p < 0.001), increased maximum clot firmness (p < 0.001), increased lysis index at 60 min (p < 0.001) and increased alpha angle (p < 0.001), but significantly shortened clot formation time (p < 0.001). Discussion: The higher thrombotic risk in COVID-19 patients with hip fractures is characterized by increased clot strength and fibrinolysis shutdown, as shown by ROTEM findings. Further prospective studies are warranted to evaluate the need for modification of thromboprophylaxis to balance the hemostatic derangements of COVID-19 patients with hip fractures.

The Procoagulant Effect of COVID-19 on the Thrombotic Risk of Patients with Hip Fractures Due to Enhanced Clot Strength and Fibrinolysis Shutdown

Piovani, Daniele;Bonovas, Stefanos;
2021-01-01

Abstract

Introduction: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in patients with hip fractures is associated with increased incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hemostatic alterations of COVID-19 that are associated with a higher thrombotic risk using rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM). Methods: A retrospective observational study was performed including 20 COVID-19 patients with hip fractures. To compare the coagulopathy of patients with mild COVID-19 and hip fractures with the coagulopathy associated with each of these two conditions separately, we used two previously recruited groups of patients; 198 hip fracture patients without COVID-19 and 21 COVID-19 patients without hip fractures. The demographics, clinical parameters, conventional coagulation parameters and ROTEM findings of the three groups were analyzed and compared. Results: COVID-19 hip fracture patients had higher amplitude of clot firmness at 10 min (p < 0.001), higher alpha angle (p < 0.001), higher lysis index at 60 min (p < 0.001), and shorter clot formation time (p < 0.001) than non-COVID-19 hip fracture patients, indicating increased clot strength and impaired fibrinolysis due to COVID-19. The value of lysis index at 60 min (99%) in COVID-19 patients with hip fractures was consistent with fibrinolysis shut down. Multivariable linear regression analysis further confirmed that COVID-19 resulted in increased amplitude of clot firmness at 10 min (p < 0.001), increased maximum clot firmness (p < 0.001), increased lysis index at 60 min (p < 0.001) and increased alpha angle (p < 0.001), but significantly shortened clot formation time (p < 0.001). Discussion: The higher thrombotic risk in COVID-19 patients with hip fractures is characterized by increased clot strength and fibrinolysis shutdown, as shown by ROTEM findings. Further prospective studies are warranted to evaluate the need for modification of thromboprophylaxis to balance the hemostatic derangements of COVID-19 patients with hip fractures.
2021
COVID-19
coagulopathy
fibrinolysis shutdown
hip fractures
thrombotic risk
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11699/66072
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