Purpose We aim to evaluate the accuracy of micro-ultrasound (microUS) in predicting extraprostatic extension (EPE) of Prostate Cancer (PCa) prior to surgery. Methods Patients with biopsy-proven PCa scheduled for robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) were prospectively recruited. The following MRI-derived microUS features were evaluated: capsular bulging, visible breach of the prostate capsule (visible extracapsular extension; ECE), presence of hypoechoic halo, and obliteration of the vesicle-prostatic angle. The ability of each feature to predict EPE was determined. Results Overall, data from 140 patients were examined. All predictors were associated with non-organ-confined disease (p < 0.001). Final pathology showed that 79 patients (56.4%) had a pT2 disease and 61 (43.3%) >= pT3. Rate of non-organ-confined disease increased from 44% in those individuals with only 1 predictor (OR 7.71) to 92.3% in those where 4 predictors (OR 72.00) were simultaneously observed. The multivariate logistic regression model including clinical parameters showed an area under the curve (AUC) of 82.3% as compared to an AUC of 87.6% for the model including both clinical and microUS parameters. Presence of ECE at microUS predicted EPE with a sensitivity of 72.1% and a specificity of 88%, a negative predictive value of 80.5% and positive predictive value of 83.0%, with an AUC of 80.4%. Conclusions MicroUS can accurately predict EPE at the final pathology report in patients scheduled for RARP.
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