Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are a class of anti-diabetic agents that block the reabsorption of glucose in the proximal convoluted tubule of the nephron, thereby contributing to glycosuria and lowering blood glucose levels. SGLT2 inhibitors have been associated with improved cardiovascular outcomes in patients with diabetes, including a reduced risk of cardiovascular death and hospitalizations for heart failure. Recently, DAPA-HF and EMPEROR REDUCED trials showed the beneficial cardiovascular effect of SGLT2 inhibitors in patients with heart failure with consistently reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) regardless of the presence of diabetes. Moreover, some exploratory studies suggested that these drugs improve Left Ventricular (LV) systolic function and oppose LV adverse remodeling in patients with HFrEF. However, the exact mechanisms that mediated for this benefit are not fully understood. Beyond glycemic control, enhanced natriuresis, increased erythropoiesis, improved endothelial function and changes in myocardial metabolism may all play an active role in SGLT2 inhibitors' cardiovascular benefits. A deep understanding of the pathophysiological interplay is key to define which HF phenotype could benefit more from SGLT2 inhibitors. Current evidence on the comparison of different HF etiologies is limited to posthoc subgroup analysis of DAPA-HF and EMPEROR-REDUCED, which showed similar outcomes in patients with or without ischemic HF. On the other hand, in earlier studies of patients suffering from diabetes, rates of classic ischemic endpoints, such as myocardial infarction, stroke or coronary revascularization, did not differ between patients treated with SGLT2 inhibitors or placebo. The aim of this review is to discuss whether SGLT2 inhibitors may improve prognosis in patients with ischemic HF, not only in terms of reducing re-hospitalizations and improving LV function but also by limiting coronary artery disease progression and ischemic burden.

Potential Therapeutic Benefits of Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors in the Context of Ischemic Heart Failure: A State-of-the-Art Review

Condorelli, Gianluigi;Stefanini, Giulio G
2022

Abstract

Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are a class of anti-diabetic agents that block the reabsorption of glucose in the proximal convoluted tubule of the nephron, thereby contributing to glycosuria and lowering blood glucose levels. SGLT2 inhibitors have been associated with improved cardiovascular outcomes in patients with diabetes, including a reduced risk of cardiovascular death and hospitalizations for heart failure. Recently, DAPA-HF and EMPEROR REDUCED trials showed the beneficial cardiovascular effect of SGLT2 inhibitors in patients with heart failure with consistently reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) regardless of the presence of diabetes. Moreover, some exploratory studies suggested that these drugs improve Left Ventricular (LV) systolic function and oppose LV adverse remodeling in patients with HFrEF. However, the exact mechanisms that mediated for this benefit are not fully understood. Beyond glycemic control, enhanced natriuresis, increased erythropoiesis, improved endothelial function and changes in myocardial metabolism may all play an active role in SGLT2 inhibitors' cardiovascular benefits. A deep understanding of the pathophysiological interplay is key to define which HF phenotype could benefit more from SGLT2 inhibitors. Current evidence on the comparison of different HF etiologies is limited to posthoc subgroup analysis of DAPA-HF and EMPEROR-REDUCED, which showed similar outcomes in patients with or without ischemic HF. On the other hand, in earlier studies of patients suffering from diabetes, rates of classic ischemic endpoints, such as myocardial infarction, stroke or coronary revascularization, did not differ between patients treated with SGLT2 inhibitors or placebo. The aim of this review is to discuss whether SGLT2 inhibitors may improve prognosis in patients with ischemic HF, not only in terms of reducing re-hospitalizations and improving LV function but also by limiting coronary artery disease progression and ischemic burden.
SGLT2 inhibitors
atherosclerosis
coronary artery disease
ischemic heart failure
left ventricular remodelling
type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Glucose
Humans
Sodium
Stroke Volume
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2
Heart Failure
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11699/66241
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