Simple Summary Mutations of isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) genes are the distinctive genetic feature of lower-grade gliomas (LGGs). Tumor-associated IDH1/2 mutations result in a loss of normal enzymatic function and the abnormal production of 2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG), which acts as an oncometabolite causing widespread changes in histone and DNA methylation and altering cellular metabolism. In the present review, we examine the "truncal" role of IDH mutations in gliomagenesis, giving hints on the different therapeutic strategies targeting IDH1/2-mutated gliomas. We analyze in detail, preclinical and, when available, data from clinical trials of specific inhibitors blocking the mutant enzyme, IDH-targeted immunotherapeutic approaches, and agents exploiting cellular metabolic and epigenetic vulnerabilities associated with the IDH mutant phenotype. Mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)1 and its homolog IDH2 are considered an earliest "driver" genetic event during gliomagenesis, representing now the molecular hallmark of lower-grade gliomas (LGGs). IDH-mutated genes encode for a neomorphic enzyme that converts alpha-ketoglutarate to the oncometabolite D-2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG), which accumulates to high concentrations and alters cellular epigenetics and metabolism. Targeting IDH mutations is the first attempt to apply "precision oncology" in LGGs. Two distinct strategies have been proposed so far and are under intense clinical investigation: (i) reducing the amount of intratumoral 2-HG by directly blocking the function of mutant IDH enzyme; (ii) exploiting the selective epigenetic and metabolic cellular vulnerabilities as a consequence of 2-HG accumulation. The present review describes the physiopathological mechanisms by which IDH mutations lead to tumorigenesis, discussing their prognostic significance and pivotal role in the gliomas diagnostic classification system. We critically review preclinical evidence and available clinical data of first-generation mutant-selective IDH inhibitors and novel IDH-targeted vaccines. Finally, as an alternative and attractive approach, we present the rationale to take advantage of selective 2-HG related epigenetic and metabolic weaknesses. The results of ongoing clinical trials will help us clarify the complex scenario of IDH-targeted therapeutic approaches in gliomas.

Precision Oncology in Lower-Grade Gliomas: Promises and Pitfalls of Therapeutic Strategies Targeting IDH-Mutations

Pessina, Federico;Politi, Letterio Salvatore;Santoro, Armando;Simonelli, Matteo
2022

Abstract

Simple Summary Mutations of isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) genes are the distinctive genetic feature of lower-grade gliomas (LGGs). Tumor-associated IDH1/2 mutations result in a loss of normal enzymatic function and the abnormal production of 2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG), which acts as an oncometabolite causing widespread changes in histone and DNA methylation and altering cellular metabolism. In the present review, we examine the "truncal" role of IDH mutations in gliomagenesis, giving hints on the different therapeutic strategies targeting IDH1/2-mutated gliomas. We analyze in detail, preclinical and, when available, data from clinical trials of specific inhibitors blocking the mutant enzyme, IDH-targeted immunotherapeutic approaches, and agents exploiting cellular metabolic and epigenetic vulnerabilities associated with the IDH mutant phenotype. Mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)1 and its homolog IDH2 are considered an earliest "driver" genetic event during gliomagenesis, representing now the molecular hallmark of lower-grade gliomas (LGGs). IDH-mutated genes encode for a neomorphic enzyme that converts alpha-ketoglutarate to the oncometabolite D-2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG), which accumulates to high concentrations and alters cellular epigenetics and metabolism. Targeting IDH mutations is the first attempt to apply "precision oncology" in LGGs. Two distinct strategies have been proposed so far and are under intense clinical investigation: (i) reducing the amount of intratumoral 2-HG by directly blocking the function of mutant IDH enzyme; (ii) exploiting the selective epigenetic and metabolic cellular vulnerabilities as a consequence of 2-HG accumulation. The present review describes the physiopathological mechanisms by which IDH mutations lead to tumorigenesis, discussing their prognostic significance and pivotal role in the gliomas diagnostic classification system. We critically review preclinical evidence and available clinical data of first-generation mutant-selective IDH inhibitors and novel IDH-targeted vaccines. Finally, as an alternative and attractive approach, we present the rationale to take advantage of selective 2-HG related epigenetic and metabolic weaknesses. The results of ongoing clinical trials will help us clarify the complex scenario of IDH-targeted therapeutic approaches in gliomas.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11699/67783
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