Although clinical antitumor activity of Tumor Treating Fields (TTFields) has been reported in malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) patients, the mechanisms behind the different selectivity displayed by the various MPM histotypes to this physical therapy has not been elucidated yet. Taking advantage of the development of well characterized human MPM cell lines derived from pleural effusion and/or lavages of patients' thoracic cavity, we investigated the biological effects of TTFields against these cells, representative of epithelioid, biphasic, and sarcomatoid histotypes. Growth inhibition and cell cycle perturbations caused by TTFields were investigated side by side with RNA-Seq analyses at different exposure times to identify pathways involved in cell response to treatment. We observed significant differences of response to TTFields among the cell lines. Cell cycle analysis revealed that the most sensitive cells (epithelioid CD473) were blocked in G2M phase followed by formation of polyploid cells. The least sensitive cells (sarcomatoid CD60) were only slightly affected by TTFields with a general delay in all cell cycle phases. Apoptosis was present in all samples, but while epithelioid cell death was already observed during the first 24 h of treatment, sarcomatoid cells needed longer times before they engaged apoptotic pathways. RNA-Seq experiments demonstrated that TTFields induced a transcriptional response already detectable at early time points (8 h). The number of differentially expressed genes was higher in CD473 than in CD60 cells, involving several pathways, such as those pertinent to cell cycle checkpoints, DNA repair, and histone modifications. Our data provide further support to the notion that the antitumor effects of TTFields are not simply related to a non-specific reaction to a physical stimulus, but are dependent on the biological background of the cells and the particular sensitivity to TTFields observed in epithelioid MPM cells is associated with a higher transcriptional activity than that observed in sarcomatoid models.

Tumor treating fields affect mesothelioma cell proliferation by exerting histotype-dependent cell cycle checkpoint activations and transcriptional modulations

Zucali, Paolo A;D'Incalci, Maurizio
2022

Abstract

Although clinical antitumor activity of Tumor Treating Fields (TTFields) has been reported in malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) patients, the mechanisms behind the different selectivity displayed by the various MPM histotypes to this physical therapy has not been elucidated yet. Taking advantage of the development of well characterized human MPM cell lines derived from pleural effusion and/or lavages of patients' thoracic cavity, we investigated the biological effects of TTFields against these cells, representative of epithelioid, biphasic, and sarcomatoid histotypes. Growth inhibition and cell cycle perturbations caused by TTFields were investigated side by side with RNA-Seq analyses at different exposure times to identify pathways involved in cell response to treatment. We observed significant differences of response to TTFields among the cell lines. Cell cycle analysis revealed that the most sensitive cells (epithelioid CD473) were blocked in G2M phase followed by formation of polyploid cells. The least sensitive cells (sarcomatoid CD60) were only slightly affected by TTFields with a general delay in all cell cycle phases. Apoptosis was present in all samples, but while epithelioid cell death was already observed during the first 24 h of treatment, sarcomatoid cells needed longer times before they engaged apoptotic pathways. RNA-Seq experiments demonstrated that TTFields induced a transcriptional response already detectable at early time points (8 h). The number of differentially expressed genes was higher in CD473 than in CD60 cells, involving several pathways, such as those pertinent to cell cycle checkpoints, DNA repair, and histone modifications. Our data provide further support to the notion that the antitumor effects of TTFields are not simply related to a non-specific reaction to a physical stimulus, but are dependent on the biological background of the cells and the particular sensitivity to TTFields observed in epithelioid MPM cells is associated with a higher transcriptional activity than that observed in sarcomatoid models.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11699/68142
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