Osteoarthritis is a highly prevalent disease particularly in subjects over 65 years of age worldwide. While in the past it was considered a mere consequence of cartilage degradation leading to anatomical and functional joint impairment, in recent decades, there has been a more dynamic view with the synovium, the cartilage, and the subchondral bone producing inflammatory mediators which ultimately lead to cartilage damage. Inflammaging is defined as a chronic, sterile, low-grade inflammation state driven by endogenous signals in the absence of infections, occurring with aging. This chronic status is linked to the production of reactive oxygen species and molecules involved in the development of age-related disease such as cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Inflammaging contributes to osteoarthritis development where both the innate and the adaptive immune response are involved. Elevated systemic and local inflammatory cytokines and senescent molecules promote cartilage degradation, and antigens derived from damaged joints further trigger inflammation through inflammasome activation. B and T lymphocyte populations also change with inflammaging and OA, with reduced regulatory functions, thus implicating self-reactivity as an additional mechanism of joint damage. The discovery of the underlying pathogenic pathways may help to identify potential therapeutic targets for the management or the prevention of osteoarthritis. We will provide a comprehensive evaluation of the current literature on the role of inflammaging in osteoarthritis and discuss the emerging therapeutic strategies.

Inflammaging and Osteoarthritis

Selmi, Carlo
2022

Abstract

Osteoarthritis is a highly prevalent disease particularly in subjects over 65 years of age worldwide. While in the past it was considered a mere consequence of cartilage degradation leading to anatomical and functional joint impairment, in recent decades, there has been a more dynamic view with the synovium, the cartilage, and the subchondral bone producing inflammatory mediators which ultimately lead to cartilage damage. Inflammaging is defined as a chronic, sterile, low-grade inflammation state driven by endogenous signals in the absence of infections, occurring with aging. This chronic status is linked to the production of reactive oxygen species and molecules involved in the development of age-related disease such as cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Inflammaging contributes to osteoarthritis development where both the innate and the adaptive immune response are involved. Elevated systemic and local inflammatory cytokines and senescent molecules promote cartilage degradation, and antigens derived from damaged joints further trigger inflammation through inflammasome activation. B and T lymphocyte populations also change with inflammaging and OA, with reduced regulatory functions, thus implicating self-reactivity as an additional mechanism of joint damage. The discovery of the underlying pathogenic pathways may help to identify potential therapeutic targets for the management or the prevention of osteoarthritis. We will provide a comprehensive evaluation of the current literature on the role of inflammaging in osteoarthritis and discuss the emerging therapeutic strategies.
Cartilage failure
Degenerative joint pain
Frailty
Senior
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11699/68623
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