The myristoylated alanine-rich C-kinase substrate (MARCKS) and the MARCKS-related protein (MARCKSL1) are ubiquitous, highly conserved membrane-associated proteins involved in the structural modulation of the actin cytoskeleton, chemotaxis, motility, cell adhesion, phagocytosis, and exocytosis. MARCKS includes an N-terminal myristoylated domain for membrane binding, a highly conserved MARCKS Homology 2 (MH2) domain, and an effector domain (which is the phosphorylation site). MARCKS can sequester phosphatidylinositol-4, 5-diphosphate (PIP2) at lipid rafts in the plasma membrane of quiescent cells, an action reversed by protein kinase C (PKC), ultimately modulating the immune function. Being expressed mostly in innate immune cells, MARCKS promotes the inflammation-driven migration and adhesion of cells and the secretion of cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF). From a clinical point of view, MARCKS is overexpressed in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorders, while the brain level of MARCKS phosphorylation is associated with Alzheimer's disease. Furthermore, MARCKS is associated with the development and progression of numerous types of cancers. Data in autoimmune diseases are limited to rheumatoid arthritis models in which a connection between MARCKS and the JAK-STAT pathway is mediated by miRNAs. We provide a comprehensive overview of the structure of MARCKS, its molecular characteristics and functions from a biological and pathogenetic standpoint, and will discuss the clinical implications of this pathway.

The myristoylated alanine-rich C-kinase substrates (MARCKS): A membrane-anchored mediator of the cell function

Selmi, Carlo;
2021

Abstract

The myristoylated alanine-rich C-kinase substrate (MARCKS) and the MARCKS-related protein (MARCKSL1) are ubiquitous, highly conserved membrane-associated proteins involved in the structural modulation of the actin cytoskeleton, chemotaxis, motility, cell adhesion, phagocytosis, and exocytosis. MARCKS includes an N-terminal myristoylated domain for membrane binding, a highly conserved MARCKS Homology 2 (MH2) domain, and an effector domain (which is the phosphorylation site). MARCKS can sequester phosphatidylinositol-4, 5-diphosphate (PIP2) at lipid rafts in the plasma membrane of quiescent cells, an action reversed by protein kinase C (PKC), ultimately modulating the immune function. Being expressed mostly in innate immune cells, MARCKS promotes the inflammation-driven migration and adhesion of cells and the secretion of cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF). From a clinical point of view, MARCKS is overexpressed in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorders, while the brain level of MARCKS phosphorylation is associated with Alzheimer's disease. Furthermore, MARCKS is associated with the development and progression of numerous types of cancers. Data in autoimmune diseases are limited to rheumatoid arthritis models in which a connection between MARCKS and the JAK-STAT pathway is mediated by miRNAs. We provide a comprehensive overview of the structure of MARCKS, its molecular characteristics and functions from a biological and pathogenetic standpoint, and will discuss the clinical implications of this pathway.
Autoimmunity
Cancer
Cell function
Dementia
Immune modulation
Inflammation
Personalized medicine
Protein kinase C
Psychosis
Schizophrenia
Alanine
Humans
Phosphorylation
MicroRNAs
Myristoylated Alanine-Rich C Kinase Substrate
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11699/68652
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