The atypical chemokine receptor ACKR2, formerly named D6, is a scavenger chemokine receptor with a non-redundant role in the control of inflammation and immunity. The scavenging activity of ACKR2 depends on its trafficking properties, which require actin cytoskeleton rearrangements downstream of a β-arrestin1-Rac1-PAK1-LIMK1-cofilin-dependent signaling pathway. We here demonstrate that in basal conditions, ACKR2 trafficking properties require intact actin and microtubules networks. The dynamic turnover of actin filaments is required to sustain ACKR2 constitutive endocytosis, while both actin and microtubule networks are involved in processes regulating ACKR2 constitutive sorting to rapid, Rab4-dependent and slow, Rab11-dependent recycling pathways, respectively. After chemokine engagement, ACKR2 requires myosin Vb activity to promote its trafficking from Rab11-positive recycling endosomes to the plasma membrane, which sustains its scavenging activity. Other than cofilin phosphorylation, induction of the β-arrestin1-dependent signaling pathway by ACKR2 agonists also leads to the rearrangement of microtubules, which is required to support the myosin Vb-dependent ACKR2 upregulation and its scavenging properties. Disruption of the actin-based cytoskeleton by the apoptosis-inducing agent staurosporine results in impaired ACKR2 internalization and chemokine degradation that is consistent with the emerging scavenging-independent activity of the receptor in apoptotic neutrophils instrumental for promoting efficient efferocytosis during the resolution of inflammation. In conclusion, we provide evidence that ACKR2 activates a β-arrestin1-dependent signaling pathway, triggering both the actin and the microtubule cytoskeletal networks, which control its trafficking and scavenger properties.

Control of Cytoskeletal Dynamics by β-Arrestin1/Myosin Vb Signaling Regulates Endosomal Sorting and Scavenging Activity of the Atypical Chemokine Receptor ACKR2

Bonecchi, Raffaella;
2020

Abstract

The atypical chemokine receptor ACKR2, formerly named D6, is a scavenger chemokine receptor with a non-redundant role in the control of inflammation and immunity. The scavenging activity of ACKR2 depends on its trafficking properties, which require actin cytoskeleton rearrangements downstream of a β-arrestin1-Rac1-PAK1-LIMK1-cofilin-dependent signaling pathway. We here demonstrate that in basal conditions, ACKR2 trafficking properties require intact actin and microtubules networks. The dynamic turnover of actin filaments is required to sustain ACKR2 constitutive endocytosis, while both actin and microtubule networks are involved in processes regulating ACKR2 constitutive sorting to rapid, Rab4-dependent and slow, Rab11-dependent recycling pathways, respectively. After chemokine engagement, ACKR2 requires myosin Vb activity to promote its trafficking from Rab11-positive recycling endosomes to the plasma membrane, which sustains its scavenging activity. Other than cofilin phosphorylation, induction of the β-arrestin1-dependent signaling pathway by ACKR2 agonists also leads to the rearrangement of microtubules, which is required to support the myosin Vb-dependent ACKR2 upregulation and its scavenging properties. Disruption of the actin-based cytoskeleton by the apoptosis-inducing agent staurosporine results in impaired ACKR2 internalization and chemokine degradation that is consistent with the emerging scavenging-independent activity of the receptor in apoptotic neutrophils instrumental for promoting efficient efferocytosis during the resolution of inflammation. In conclusion, we provide evidence that ACKR2 activates a β-arrestin1-dependent signaling pathway, triggering both the actin and the microtubule cytoskeletal networks, which control its trafficking and scavenger properties.
ACKR2
chemokine
cytoskeleton
myosin Vb
β-arrestin1
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11699/70221
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