Acute full thickness joint surface defects can undergo repair, which involves tissue patterning and endochondral bone formation. Molecular signals regulating this process may contribute to the repair outcome, chronic evolution and, eventually, the onset of osteoarthritis. We tested the hypothesis that mechanical injury modulates morphogenetic pathways in adult human articular cartilage explants. Adjacent articular cartilage explants were obtained from preserved areas of the femoral condyles of patients undergoing arthroplasty for osteoarthritis, or from a normal joint of a patient undergoing lower limb amputation. Paired explants were individually maintained in explant culture. From each pair, one explant was mechanically injured and the other left uninjured as a control. Cultures were terminated at different time points for histochemistry, immunohistochemistry and gene expression analysis by reverse transcription real time PCR. Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) mRNA was upregulated in the injured explants. We detected phosphorylation of SMAD-1 and SMAD-5, consistent with activation of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) pathway. FRZB-1 mRNA was downregulated in the injured explants, suggesting de-repression of WNT signaling. Accordingly, expression of the canonical WNT target genes Axin-2 and c-JUN was upregulated in the injured explants. Activation of the canonical WNT signaling pathway by LiCl treatment induced upregulation of COL2A1 and Aggrecan mRNA, suggesting an anabolic effect. Phosphorylation of SMAD-1/-5 and downregulation of FRZB were confirmed in vivo in a mouse model of joint surface injury. Taken together, these data show modulation of the BMP and WNT pathways following mechanical injury in vitro and in vivo, which may play a role in the reparative response of the joint surface. These pathways may, therefore, represent potential targets in protocols of biological joint surface defect repair.

Activation of WNT and BMP signaling in adult human articular cartilage following mechanical injury

Pitzalis, Costantino
2006

Abstract

Acute full thickness joint surface defects can undergo repair, which involves tissue patterning and endochondral bone formation. Molecular signals regulating this process may contribute to the repair outcome, chronic evolution and, eventually, the onset of osteoarthritis. We tested the hypothesis that mechanical injury modulates morphogenetic pathways in adult human articular cartilage explants. Adjacent articular cartilage explants were obtained from preserved areas of the femoral condyles of patients undergoing arthroplasty for osteoarthritis, or from a normal joint of a patient undergoing lower limb amputation. Paired explants were individually maintained in explant culture. From each pair, one explant was mechanically injured and the other left uninjured as a control. Cultures were terminated at different time points for histochemistry, immunohistochemistry and gene expression analysis by reverse transcription real time PCR. Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) mRNA was upregulated in the injured explants. We detected phosphorylation of SMAD-1 and SMAD-5, consistent with activation of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) pathway. FRZB-1 mRNA was downregulated in the injured explants, suggesting de-repression of WNT signaling. Accordingly, expression of the canonical WNT target genes Axin-2 and c-JUN was upregulated in the injured explants. Activation of the canonical WNT signaling pathway by LiCl treatment induced upregulation of COL2A1 and Aggrecan mRNA, suggesting an anabolic effect. Phosphorylation of SMAD-1/-5 and downregulation of FRZB were confirmed in vivo in a mouse model of joint surface injury. Taken together, these data show modulation of the BMP and WNT pathways following mechanical injury in vitro and in vivo, which may play a role in the reparative response of the joint surface. These pathways may, therefore, represent potential targets in protocols of biological joint surface defect repair.
Aged
Aggrecans
Animals
Axin Protein
Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2
Bone Morphogenetic Proteins
Cartilage, Articular
Collagen Type II
Cytoskeletal Proteins
Female
Glycoproteins
Humans
Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
Male
Mice
Mice, Inbred C57BL
Middle Aged
Organ Culture Techniques
RNA, Messenger
Signal Transduction
Smad1 Protein
Smad5 Protein
Transforming Growth Factor beta
Wnt Proteins
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11699/70522
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