Psoriatic Arthritis (PsA) is a complex polygenic inflammatory disease showing a variable musculoskeletal involvement in patients with skin psoriasis. PsA coexist in 25-40 % of patients with the dermatological manifestations, but PsA may also predate the appearance of psoriasis. Nonetheless, the immunopathogenesis of psoriasis and PsA manifest significant similarities, with a major role of the individual susceptibility in both cases. Genome wide association studies (GWAS) identified several genes/loci associated with the risk to develop PsA, both dependent and independent of psoriasis. The major challenge is thus represented by the need to translate the identification of functional polymorphisms and other genetics findings into biological mechanisms along with the identification of novel putative drug targets. A functional genomics approach aims to increase GWAS power and recent evidence supports the use of a multilayer process, including eQTL, methylome, chromatin conformation analysis and genome editing to discover novel genes that can be affected by disease-associated variants, such as PsA. The available data have considered PsA as a unique homogeneous clinical entity while the clinical experience supports a wide variability of skin and joint manifestations coexisting in diverse patients with different mechanisms underlying the musculoskeletal and dermatological domains. A better discrimination of the patient features is encouraged by the limited data on functional genomics. We provide herein a review of the latest findings on PsA functional genomics highlighting the exciting developments in the field and how these might lead to a better understanding of gene regulation underpinning disease mechanisms and ultimately refine clinical phenotyping.

Advanced genomics and clinical phenotypes in psoriatic arthritis

Selmi, Carlo
2022-01-01

Abstract

Psoriatic Arthritis (PsA) is a complex polygenic inflammatory disease showing a variable musculoskeletal involvement in patients with skin psoriasis. PsA coexist in 25-40 % of patients with the dermatological manifestations, but PsA may also predate the appearance of psoriasis. Nonetheless, the immunopathogenesis of psoriasis and PsA manifest significant similarities, with a major role of the individual susceptibility in both cases. Genome wide association studies (GWAS) identified several genes/loci associated with the risk to develop PsA, both dependent and independent of psoriasis. The major challenge is thus represented by the need to translate the identification of functional polymorphisms and other genetics findings into biological mechanisms along with the identification of novel putative drug targets. A functional genomics approach aims to increase GWAS power and recent evidence supports the use of a multilayer process, including eQTL, methylome, chromatin conformation analysis and genome editing to discover novel genes that can be affected by disease-associated variants, such as PsA. The available data have considered PsA as a unique homogeneous clinical entity while the clinical experience supports a wide variability of skin and joint manifestations coexisting in diverse patients with different mechanisms underlying the musculoskeletal and dermatological domains. A better discrimination of the patient features is encouraged by the limited data on functional genomics. We provide herein a review of the latest findings on PsA functional genomics highlighting the exciting developments in the field and how these might lead to a better understanding of gene regulation underpinning disease mechanisms and ultimately refine clinical phenotyping.
Genetics
Genomics
Methylation
Psoriatic arthritis
SNP
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11699/70715
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