The vasculature plays an essential role in the development and maintenance of blood-tissue interface homeostasis. Knowledge on the morphological and functional nature of the blood vessels in every single tissue is, however, very poor, but it is becoming clear that each organ is characterized by the presence of endothelial barriers with different properties fundamental for the maintenance of tissue resident immune homeostasis and for the recruitment of blood-trafficking immune cells. The tissue specificity of the vascular unit is dependent on the presence of differentiated endothelial cells that form continues, fenestrated, or sinusoidal vessels with different grades of permeability and different immune receptors, according to how that particular tissue needs to be protected. The gut-brain axis highlights the prominent role that the vasculature plays in allowing a direct and prompt exchange of molecules between the gut, across the gut vascular barrier (GVB), and the brain. Recently, we identified a new choroid plexus vascular barrier (PVB) which receives and integrates information coming from the gut and is fundamental in the modulation of the gut-brain axis. Several pathologies are linked to functional dysregulation of either the gut or the choroid plexus vascular barriers. In this review, we unveil the structural and functional analogies between the GVB and PVB, comparing their peculiar features and highlighting the functional role of pitcher and catcher of the gut-brain axis, including their role in the establishment of immune homeostasis and response upon systemic stimuli. We propose that when the gut vascular barrier-the main protecting system of the body from the external world-is compromised, the choroid plexus gatekeeper becomes a second barrier that protects the central nervous system from systemic inflammation.

Unveiling the gut-brain axis: structural and functional analogies between the gut and the choroid plexus vascular and immune barriers

Carloni, Sara;Rescigno, Maria
2022-01-01

Abstract

The vasculature plays an essential role in the development and maintenance of blood-tissue interface homeostasis. Knowledge on the morphological and functional nature of the blood vessels in every single tissue is, however, very poor, but it is becoming clear that each organ is characterized by the presence of endothelial barriers with different properties fundamental for the maintenance of tissue resident immune homeostasis and for the recruitment of blood-trafficking immune cells. The tissue specificity of the vascular unit is dependent on the presence of differentiated endothelial cells that form continues, fenestrated, or sinusoidal vessels with different grades of permeability and different immune receptors, according to how that particular tissue needs to be protected. The gut-brain axis highlights the prominent role that the vasculature plays in allowing a direct and prompt exchange of molecules between the gut, across the gut vascular barrier (GVB), and the brain. Recently, we identified a new choroid plexus vascular barrier (PVB) which receives and integrates information coming from the gut and is fundamental in the modulation of the gut-brain axis. Several pathologies are linked to functional dysregulation of either the gut or the choroid plexus vascular barriers. In this review, we unveil the structural and functional analogies between the GVB and PVB, comparing their peculiar features and highlighting the functional role of pitcher and catcher of the gut-brain axis, including their role in the establishment of immune homeostasis and response upon systemic stimuli. We propose that when the gut vascular barrier-the main protecting system of the body from the external world-is compromised, the choroid plexus gatekeeper becomes a second barrier that protects the central nervous system from systemic inflammation.
Choroid plexus vascular barrier
Endothelium
Gut vascular barrier
Gut-brain axis
Inflammatory bowel disease
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11699/70764
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