Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are epithelial neoplasms with predominant neuroendocrine differentiation that arise in most organs of the body. Mediastinal NETs are very rare, and account for no more than 5% of all mediastinal tumors. R0 surgery represents the milestone of treatment. Here, we describe a case of a locally advanced primary atypical carcinoid of the mediastinum. This was initially considered inoperable due to infiltration of a great vessel and was successfully resected after neoadjuvant treatment as a result of very extensive surgery. Only through an accurate preoperative diagnosis and good radiological planning is it possible to obtain satisfactory oncological results.
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