Airway inflammation plays a central role in bronchiectasis. Protease-antiprotease balance is crucial in bronchiectasis pathophysiology and increased presence of unopposed proteases activity may contribute to bronchiectasis onset and progression. Proteases' over-reactivity and antiprotease deficiency may have a role in increasing inflammation in bronchiectasis airways and may lead to extracellular matrix degradation and tissue damage. Imbalances in serine proteases and matrix-metallo proteinases (MMPs) have been associated to bronchiectasis. Active neutrophil elastase has been associated with disease severity and poor long-term outcomes in this disease. Moreover, high levels of MMPs have been associated with radiological and disease severity. Finally, severe deficiency of alpha 1-antitrypsin (AAT), as PiSZ and PiZZ (proteinase inhibitor SZ and ZZ) phenotype, have been associated with bronchiectasis development. Several treatments are under study to reduce protease activity in lungs. Molecules to inhibit neutrophil elastase activity have been developed in both oral or inhaled form, along with compounds inhibiting dipeptydil-peptidase 1, enzyme responsible for the activation of serine proteases. Finally, supplementation with AAT is in use for patients with severe deficiency. The identification of different targets of therapy within the protease-antiprotease balance contributes to a precision medicine approach in bronchiectasis and eventually interrupts and disrupts the vicious vortex which characterizes the disease.

Protease-Antiprotease Imbalance in Bronchiectasis

Amati, Francesco
Conceptualization
;
Voza, Antonio
Data Curation
;
Aliberti, Stefano
Conceptualization
2021-01-01

Abstract

Airway inflammation plays a central role in bronchiectasis. Protease-antiprotease balance is crucial in bronchiectasis pathophysiology and increased presence of unopposed proteases activity may contribute to bronchiectasis onset and progression. Proteases' over-reactivity and antiprotease deficiency may have a role in increasing inflammation in bronchiectasis airways and may lead to extracellular matrix degradation and tissue damage. Imbalances in serine proteases and matrix-metallo proteinases (MMPs) have been associated to bronchiectasis. Active neutrophil elastase has been associated with disease severity and poor long-term outcomes in this disease. Moreover, high levels of MMPs have been associated with radiological and disease severity. Finally, severe deficiency of alpha 1-antitrypsin (AAT), as PiSZ and PiZZ (proteinase inhibitor SZ and ZZ) phenotype, have been associated with bronchiectasis development. Several treatments are under study to reduce protease activity in lungs. Molecules to inhibit neutrophil elastase activity have been developed in both oral or inhaled form, along with compounds inhibiting dipeptydil-peptidase 1, enzyme responsible for the activation of serine proteases. Finally, supplementation with AAT is in use for patients with severe deficiency. The identification of different targets of therapy within the protease-antiprotease balance contributes to a precision medicine approach in bronchiectasis and eventually interrupts and disrupts the vicious vortex which characterizes the disease.
bronchiectasis
neutrophilic inflammation
proteases
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11699/71405
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