Purpose of review: Cardiovascular infections are serious disease associated with high morbidity and mortality. Their diagnosis is challenging, requiring a proper management for a prompt recognition of the clinical manifestations, and a multidisciplinary approach involving cardiologists, cardiothoracic surgeons, infectious diseases specialist, imagers, and microbiologists. Imaging plays a central role in the diagnostic workout, including molecular imaging techniques. In this setting, two different strategies might be used to image infections: the first is based on the use of agents targeting the microorganism responsible for the infection. Alternatively, we can target the components of the pathophysiological changes of the inflammatory process and/or the host response to the infectious pathogen can be considered. Understanding the strength and limitations of each strategy is crucial to select the most appropriate imaging tool. Recent findings: Currently, multislice computed tomography (MSCT) and nuclear imaging (18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography, and leucocyte scintigraphy) are part of the diagnostic strategies. The main role of nuclear medicine imaging (PET/CT and SPECT/CT) is the confirmation of valve/CIED involvement and/or associated perivalvular infection and the detection of distant septic embolism. Proper patients' preparation, imaging acquisition, and reconstruction as well as imaging reading are crucial to maximize the diagnostic information. In this manuscript, we described the use of molecular imaging techniques, in particular WBC imaging, in patients with infective endocarditis, cardiovascular implantable electronic device infections, and infections of composite aortic graft, underlying the strength and limitations of such approached as compared to the other imaging modalities.

Alternative Nuclear Imaging Tools for Infection Imaging

Sollini, Martina;
2022-01-01

Abstract

Purpose of review: Cardiovascular infections are serious disease associated with high morbidity and mortality. Their diagnosis is challenging, requiring a proper management for a prompt recognition of the clinical manifestations, and a multidisciplinary approach involving cardiologists, cardiothoracic surgeons, infectious diseases specialist, imagers, and microbiologists. Imaging plays a central role in the diagnostic workout, including molecular imaging techniques. In this setting, two different strategies might be used to image infections: the first is based on the use of agents targeting the microorganism responsible for the infection. Alternatively, we can target the components of the pathophysiological changes of the inflammatory process and/or the host response to the infectious pathogen can be considered. Understanding the strength and limitations of each strategy is crucial to select the most appropriate imaging tool. Recent findings: Currently, multislice computed tomography (MSCT) and nuclear imaging (18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography, and leucocyte scintigraphy) are part of the diagnostic strategies. The main role of nuclear medicine imaging (PET/CT and SPECT/CT) is the confirmation of valve/CIED involvement and/or associated perivalvular infection and the detection of distant septic embolism. Proper patients' preparation, imaging acquisition, and reconstruction as well as imaging reading are crucial to maximize the diagnostic information. In this manuscript, we described the use of molecular imaging techniques, in particular WBC imaging, in patients with infective endocarditis, cardiovascular implantable electronic device infections, and infections of composite aortic graft, underlying the strength and limitations of such approached as compared to the other imaging modalities.
2022
CIED infections
CVS infections
Infective endocarditis
SPECT/CT embolic burden
WBC scan
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11699/72006
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