Purpose: There is limited information on the risk factors for recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL). Methods: In this study, a patient-based approach was used to investigate the possible involvement and relative relevance of a large number of diagnostic factors in 843 women with RPL who underwent an extensive diagnostic workup including 44 diagnostic factors divided into 7 major categories. Results: The rates of abnormalities found were: (1) genital infections: 11.74%; (2) uterine anatomic defects: 23.72%; (3) endocrine disorders: 29.42%; (4) thrombophilias: 62%; (5) autoimmune abnormalities: 39.2%; (6) parental karyotype abnormalities 2.25%; (7) clinical factors: 87.78%. Six hundred and fifty-nine out of eight hundred and forty-three women (78.17%) had more than one abnormality. The mean number of pregnancy losses increased by increasing the number of the abnormalities found (r = 0.86949, P < 0.02). The factors associated with the highest mean number of pregnancy losses were cervical isthmic incompetence, anti-beta-2-glycoprotein-1 antibodies, unicornuate uterus, anti-prothrombin A antibodies, protein C deficiency, and lupus anticoagulant. The majority of the considered abnormalities had similar, non-significant prevalence between women with 2 versus ≥ 3 pregnancy losses with the exception of age ≥ 35 years and MTHFR A1298C heterozygote mutation. No difference was found between women with primary and secondary RPL stratified according to the number of abnormalities detected (Chi-square: 8.55, P = 0.07). In these women, the only factors found to be present with statistically different rates were age ≥ 35 years, cigarette smoking, and genital infection by Ureaplasma. Conclusion: A patient-based diagnostic approach in women with RPL could be clinically useful and could represent a basis for future research.

Diagnostic factors for recurrent pregnancy loss: an expanded workup

Di Simone, Nicoletta
2023-01-01

Abstract

Purpose: There is limited information on the risk factors for recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL). Methods: In this study, a patient-based approach was used to investigate the possible involvement and relative relevance of a large number of diagnostic factors in 843 women with RPL who underwent an extensive diagnostic workup including 44 diagnostic factors divided into 7 major categories. Results: The rates of abnormalities found were: (1) genital infections: 11.74%; (2) uterine anatomic defects: 23.72%; (3) endocrine disorders: 29.42%; (4) thrombophilias: 62%; (5) autoimmune abnormalities: 39.2%; (6) parental karyotype abnormalities 2.25%; (7) clinical factors: 87.78%. Six hundred and fifty-nine out of eight hundred and forty-three women (78.17%) had more than one abnormality. The mean number of pregnancy losses increased by increasing the number of the abnormalities found (r = 0.86949, P < 0.02). The factors associated with the highest mean number of pregnancy losses were cervical isthmic incompetence, anti-beta-2-glycoprotein-1 antibodies, unicornuate uterus, anti-prothrombin A antibodies, protein C deficiency, and lupus anticoagulant. The majority of the considered abnormalities had similar, non-significant prevalence between women with 2 versus ≥ 3 pregnancy losses with the exception of age ≥ 35 years and MTHFR A1298C heterozygote mutation. No difference was found between women with primary and secondary RPL stratified according to the number of abnormalities detected (Chi-square: 8.55, P = 0.07). In these women, the only factors found to be present with statistically different rates were age ≥ 35 years, cigarette smoking, and genital infection by Ureaplasma. Conclusion: A patient-based diagnostic approach in women with RPL could be clinically useful and could represent a basis for future research.
2023
Diagnostic factors
Pregnancy complications
Recurrent pregnancy loss
Risk factors
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11699/72643
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