Purpose: Further examination of clinical outcomes and inflammatory response of bacteremic pneumococcal community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is of great interest to enhance the care of patients with pneumococcal CAP. Methods: This is a secondary analysis of the Community Acquired Pneumonia Organization (CAPO) to compare the time to clinical stability (TCS), length of hospital stay (LOS), and in-hospital mortality of hospitalized pneumococcal CAP patients with and without bacteremia. To measure the effect of bacteremia in pneumococcal CAP patients on outcomes, we modeled all-cause in-hospital mortality using a Poisson regression model, and TCS and LOS using Cox proportional hazards models. Adjusted multivariate regression models were also used to predict the probability of occurrence of each of the study outcomes. To investigate the inflammatory response, we measured the plasma levels of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1rα, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10], inflammatory biomarkers [C-reactive protein (CRP), pro-calcitonin (PCT), and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP)], and peripheral blood neutrophil responses in 10 patients, 4 bacteremic and 6 non-bacteremic pneumococcal CAP, upon admission and every other day during the first 6 days of hospitalization. Functional data were presented as median and standard error of the median (SEM); due to small number of samples no statistical comparisons were performed between groups. Results: From 833 pneumococcal CAP patients, 394 patients (47 %) were bacteremic. Bacteremic pneumococcal CAP were less likely to reach TCS with an adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) of 0.82 (95 % CI 0.69–0.97; p = 0.02) and had higher in-hospital mortality with an AHR of 1.63 (95 % CI 1.06–2.50, p = 0.026). Bacteremic pneumococcal CAP patients had a longer LOS than non-bacteremic pneumococcal CAP (p < 0.003). Higher plasma levels of CRP, PCT, and BNP were found in bacteremic than in non-bacteremic patients. The bacteremic group had consistently higher plasma levels of both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. The blood neutrophil functional responses were similar in both groups of patients. Conclusions: Bacteremic pneumococcal CAP patients were significantly associated with higher in-hospital mortality, lower TCS, and longer LOS. HIV-infected patients showed a greater mortality which was not statistically significant. Bacteremic pneumococcal CAP patients had higher levels of biomarkers and systemic cytokines.

Bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia : clinical outcomes and preliminary results of inflammatory response

S. Aliberti;
2015-01-01

Abstract

Purpose: Further examination of clinical outcomes and inflammatory response of bacteremic pneumococcal community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is of great interest to enhance the care of patients with pneumococcal CAP. Methods: This is a secondary analysis of the Community Acquired Pneumonia Organization (CAPO) to compare the time to clinical stability (TCS), length of hospital stay (LOS), and in-hospital mortality of hospitalized pneumococcal CAP patients with and without bacteremia. To measure the effect of bacteremia in pneumococcal CAP patients on outcomes, we modeled all-cause in-hospital mortality using a Poisson regression model, and TCS and LOS using Cox proportional hazards models. Adjusted multivariate regression models were also used to predict the probability of occurrence of each of the study outcomes. To investigate the inflammatory response, we measured the plasma levels of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1rα, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10], inflammatory biomarkers [C-reactive protein (CRP), pro-calcitonin (PCT), and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP)], and peripheral blood neutrophil responses in 10 patients, 4 bacteremic and 6 non-bacteremic pneumococcal CAP, upon admission and every other day during the first 6 days of hospitalization. Functional data were presented as median and standard error of the median (SEM); due to small number of samples no statistical comparisons were performed between groups. Results: From 833 pneumococcal CAP patients, 394 patients (47 %) were bacteremic. Bacteremic pneumococcal CAP were less likely to reach TCS with an adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) of 0.82 (95 % CI 0.69–0.97; p = 0.02) and had higher in-hospital mortality with an AHR of 1.63 (95 % CI 1.06–2.50, p = 0.026). Bacteremic pneumococcal CAP patients had a longer LOS than non-bacteremic pneumococcal CAP (p < 0.003). Higher plasma levels of CRP, PCT, and BNP were found in bacteremic than in non-bacteremic patients. The bacteremic group had consistently higher plasma levels of both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. The blood neutrophil functional responses were similar in both groups of patients. Conclusions: Bacteremic pneumococcal CAP patients were significantly associated with higher in-hospital mortality, lower TCS, and longer LOS. HIV-infected patients showed a greater mortality which was not statistically significant. Bacteremic pneumococcal CAP patients had higher levels of biomarkers and systemic cytokines.
2015
Biomarkers
Chemokines
Community-acquired pneumonia
Cytokines
Inflammatory response
Mortality
Neutrophil functional responses
Outcome
Pneumococcal bacteremia
Pneumonia severity
Streptococcus pneumoniae
Microbiology (medical)
Infectious Diseases
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11699/74551
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