BACKGROUND & AIMS: Bloodstream infections (BSIs) in cirrhotic patients are 10-fold more common than in non-cirrhotic patients and increasingly caused by resistant pathogens. We examined 162 BSI episodes in cirrhotic patients to describe the etiology and risk factors for 30-day mortality. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed all consecutive BSIs in patients with liver cirrhosis at our 1350-bed teaching hospital (January 2008 to June 2012). Cox-proportional hazard regression was used to analyze the impact of disease and treatment-related variables on the crude 30-day mortality. RESULTS: BSI episodes were identified in 162 patients, including 29 mixed infections. Most of episodes were classified as hospital acquired or healthcare associated (93%). Gram-negative bacteria (GNB), Gram-positive bacteria and Candida spp. caused 64%, 38%, and 10% of episodes, respectively. GNB were classified as multi-drug resistant (MDR) and extensively drug resistant (XDR) in 25% and 21% of cases, respectively. The overall crude 30-day mortality rate was 29%. Four risk factors were independently associated with 30-day crude mortality: worsening of MELD score from baseline (the last MELD score available in the 2weeks prior BSI) to that at BSI onset (HR 1.11 per point increase, 95% CI 1.07-1.15, p<0.0001), spontaneous bacterial peritonitis as BSI source (HR 4.42, 2.04-9.54, p=0.002), sepsis grading (HR 2.18, 1.39-3.43, p=0.0007), and inappropriate antibiotic therapy within 24h from blood cultures (HR 2.82, 1.50-5.41, p=0.002). CONCLUSION: An increasing proportion of BSIs in cirrhotic patients are caused by resistant GNB and Candida spp. Accurate evaluation of risk factors for mortality may improve early appropriate therapeutic management.

Epidemiology and outcomes of bloodstream infection in patients with cirrhosis

BARTOLETTI, MICHELE;
2014-01-01

Abstract

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Bloodstream infections (BSIs) in cirrhotic patients are 10-fold more common than in non-cirrhotic patients and increasingly caused by resistant pathogens. We examined 162 BSI episodes in cirrhotic patients to describe the etiology and risk factors for 30-day mortality. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed all consecutive BSIs in patients with liver cirrhosis at our 1350-bed teaching hospital (January 2008 to June 2012). Cox-proportional hazard regression was used to analyze the impact of disease and treatment-related variables on the crude 30-day mortality. RESULTS: BSI episodes were identified in 162 patients, including 29 mixed infections. Most of episodes were classified as hospital acquired or healthcare associated (93%). Gram-negative bacteria (GNB), Gram-positive bacteria and Candida spp. caused 64%, 38%, and 10% of episodes, respectively. GNB were classified as multi-drug resistant (MDR) and extensively drug resistant (XDR) in 25% and 21% of cases, respectively. The overall crude 30-day mortality rate was 29%. Four risk factors were independently associated with 30-day crude mortality: worsening of MELD score from baseline (the last MELD score available in the 2weeks prior BSI) to that at BSI onset (HR 1.11 per point increase, 95% CI 1.07-1.15, p<0.0001), spontaneous bacterial peritonitis as BSI source (HR 4.42, 2.04-9.54, p=0.002), sepsis grading (HR 2.18, 1.39-3.43, p=0.0007), and inappropriate antibiotic therapy within 24h from blood cultures (HR 2.82, 1.50-5.41, p=0.002). CONCLUSION: An increasing proportion of BSIs in cirrhotic patients are caused by resistant GNB and Candida spp. Accurate evaluation of risk factors for mortality may improve early appropriate therapeutic management.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11699/74778
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