Purpose: This systematic review aims to provide a data synthesis about the risk of neovaginal cancer in women with Müllerian anomalies and to investigate the association between the adopted reconstructive technique and the cancer histotype. Methods: PubMed, MEDLINE, Embase, Scopus, ClinicalTrials.gov and Web of Science databases were searched from inception to March 1st, 2023. Studies were included if: (1) only women affected by Müllerian malformations were included, (2) the congenital defect and the vaginoplasty technique were clearly reported, (3) the type of malignancy was specified. Results: Literature search yielded 18 cases of squamous cell carcinoma and two cases of vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia 3 (VAIN 3). Of these, 3 had been operated on according to the Wharton technique, 8 according to the McIndoe technique, 3 with a split-skin graft vaginoplasty, 2 according to the Davydov technique, 2 with a simple cleavage technique, 1 according to the Vecchietti technique and 1 with a bladder flap vaginoplasty. A total of 17 cases of adenocarcinoma and 1 case of high-grade polypoid dysplasia were also described. Of these, 15 had undergone intestinal vaginoplasty, 1 had been operated on according to the McIndoe technique and 1 had undergone non-surgical vaginoplasty. Finally, 1 case of verrucous carcinoma in a woman who had undergone a split-skin graft vaginoplasty, was reported. Conclusion: Although rare, neovaginal carcinoma is a definite risk after vaginal reconstruction, regardless of the adopted technique. Gynaecologic visits including the speculum examination, the HPV DNA and/or the Pap smear tests should be scheduled on an annual basis.

Neovagina creation methods in Müllerian anomalies and risk of malignancy: insights from a systematic review

Busnelli, Andrea
2023-01-01

Abstract

Purpose: This systematic review aims to provide a data synthesis about the risk of neovaginal cancer in women with Müllerian anomalies and to investigate the association between the adopted reconstructive technique and the cancer histotype. Methods: PubMed, MEDLINE, Embase, Scopus, ClinicalTrials.gov and Web of Science databases were searched from inception to March 1st, 2023. Studies were included if: (1) only women affected by Müllerian malformations were included, (2) the congenital defect and the vaginoplasty technique were clearly reported, (3) the type of malignancy was specified. Results: Literature search yielded 18 cases of squamous cell carcinoma and two cases of vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia 3 (VAIN 3). Of these, 3 had been operated on according to the Wharton technique, 8 according to the McIndoe technique, 3 with a split-skin graft vaginoplasty, 2 according to the Davydov technique, 2 with a simple cleavage technique, 1 according to the Vecchietti technique and 1 with a bladder flap vaginoplasty. A total of 17 cases of adenocarcinoma and 1 case of high-grade polypoid dysplasia were also described. Of these, 15 had undergone intestinal vaginoplasty, 1 had been operated on according to the McIndoe technique and 1 had undergone non-surgical vaginoplasty. Finally, 1 case of verrucous carcinoma in a woman who had undergone a split-skin graft vaginoplasty, was reported. Conclusion: Although rare, neovaginal carcinoma is a definite risk after vaginal reconstruction, regardless of the adopted technique. Gynaecologic visits including the speculum examination, the HPV DNA and/or the Pap smear tests should be scheduled on an annual basis.
2023
Müllerian anomalies
Neovagina
Neovaginal cancer
Vaginal agenesis
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11699/77323
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