Descending necrotizing mediastinitis (DNM) is an acute, rare, severe condition with high mortality, but the optimal management protocol is still controversial. We retrospectively analyzed the results of multidisciplinary management in patients treated for DNM at our center over the last twenty years. Fifteen male patients, mean age 49.07 ± 14.92 years, were treated: 9 with cervico-pharyngeal etiopathogenesis, 3 peri-tonsillar/tonsillar, 2 odontogenic, 1 post-surgical; 6 with DNM type I, 6 with type IIA, and 3 with type IIB (Endo’s classification). Mean time between diagnosis and treatment was 2.24 ± 1.61 days. In all cases, mediastinum drainage via thoracotomy was performed after neck drainage via cervicotomy, associated with tooth treatment in two; one required re-operation; tracheostomy was necessary in 9, temporary intensive care unit stay in 4; 6 developed complications, without post-operative mortality. Main isolated germs were Staphylococci and Candida; 7 had polymicrobial infection. The most used antibiotics were meropenem, metronidazole, teicoplanin, third-generation cephalosporins and clyndamicin; anti-fungal drugs were fluconazole, caspofungin and anidulafungin. On multivariate analysis, presence of cardiovascular disease was statistically significantly associated with longer chest tube duration and hospital stay. DNM requires early diagnosis and treatment to reduce mortality and morbidity. The most effective treatment should provide a multidisciplinary approach, combining cervicotomy and thoracotomy to drain all infectious collections with administration and monitoring of the proper antimicrobial therapy.

Multidisciplinary Approach in the Treatment of Descending Necrotizing Mediastinitis: Twenty-Year Single-Center Experience

Bavaro D. F.;Marulli G.
2022-01-01

Abstract

Descending necrotizing mediastinitis (DNM) is an acute, rare, severe condition with high mortality, but the optimal management protocol is still controversial. We retrospectively analyzed the results of multidisciplinary management in patients treated for DNM at our center over the last twenty years. Fifteen male patients, mean age 49.07 ± 14.92 years, were treated: 9 with cervico-pharyngeal etiopathogenesis, 3 peri-tonsillar/tonsillar, 2 odontogenic, 1 post-surgical; 6 with DNM type I, 6 with type IIA, and 3 with type IIB (Endo’s classification). Mean time between diagnosis and treatment was 2.24 ± 1.61 days. In all cases, mediastinum drainage via thoracotomy was performed after neck drainage via cervicotomy, associated with tooth treatment in two; one required re-operation; tracheostomy was necessary in 9, temporary intensive care unit stay in 4; 6 developed complications, without post-operative mortality. Main isolated germs were Staphylococci and Candida; 7 had polymicrobial infection. The most used antibiotics were meropenem, metronidazole, teicoplanin, third-generation cephalosporins and clyndamicin; anti-fungal drugs were fluconazole, caspofungin and anidulafungin. On multivariate analysis, presence of cardiovascular disease was statistically significantly associated with longer chest tube duration and hospital stay. DNM requires early diagnosis and treatment to reduce mortality and morbidity. The most effective treatment should provide a multidisciplinary approach, combining cervicotomy and thoracotomy to drain all infectious collections with administration and monitoring of the proper antimicrobial therapy.
2022
antibiotics
antimicrobial therapy
cervicotomy
descending necrotizing mediastinitis
early diagnosis
surgical treatment
thoracotomy
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11699/78454
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