Sinonasal squamous cell carcinoma is a rare tumor affecting the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. Several aspects of this disease, ranging from epidemiology to biology, pathology, diagnosis, staging, treatment, and post-treatment surveillance are controversial, and consensus on how to manage this sinonasal cancer is lacking. A narrative literature review was performed to summarize the current evidence and provide the reader with available data supporting the decision-making process in patients affected by sinonasal squamous cell carcinoma, alongside the authors’ personal opinion on the unsolved issues of this tumor. The review has highlighted several advances in molecular definition of epithelial cancers of the sinonasal tract. Surgery represents the pivot of treatment and is performed through an endoscopic transnasal approach whenever feasible. Open surgery is required for a large proportion of cases. Reconstruction of the defect follows principles of skull base and cranio-maxillo-facial reconstruction. Chemotherapy is given as neoadjuvant treatment or concomitantly to radiotherapy. Photon-based radiation therapy has a crucial role in the adjuvant setting. Particle therapy is providing promising results. Management of the neck should be planned based on the presence of clinically appreciable metastases, primary tumor extension, and need for recipient vessels. Biotherapy and immunotherapy are still underexplored therapeutical modalities.

Sinonasal squamous cell carcinoma, a narrative reappraisal of the current evidence

Bossi P.;
2021-01-01

Abstract

Sinonasal squamous cell carcinoma is a rare tumor affecting the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. Several aspects of this disease, ranging from epidemiology to biology, pathology, diagnosis, staging, treatment, and post-treatment surveillance are controversial, and consensus on how to manage this sinonasal cancer is lacking. A narrative literature review was performed to summarize the current evidence and provide the reader with available data supporting the decision-making process in patients affected by sinonasal squamous cell carcinoma, alongside the authors’ personal opinion on the unsolved issues of this tumor. The review has highlighted several advances in molecular definition of epithelial cancers of the sinonasal tract. Surgery represents the pivot of treatment and is performed through an endoscopic transnasal approach whenever feasible. Open surgery is required for a large proportion of cases. Reconstruction of the defect follows principles of skull base and cranio-maxillo-facial reconstruction. Chemotherapy is given as neoadjuvant treatment or concomitantly to radiotherapy. Photon-based radiation therapy has a crucial role in the adjuvant setting. Particle therapy is providing promising results. Management of the neck should be planned based on the presence of clinically appreciable metastases, primary tumor extension, and need for recipient vessels. Biotherapy and immunotherapy are still underexplored therapeutical modalities.
2021
Chemotherapy
Diagnosis
Nasal cavity
Paranasal sinuses
Radiotherapy
Sinonasal cancer
Squamous cell carcinoma
Staging
Surgery
Treatment
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11699/80893
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