Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is a rare tumor, usually arising in the salivary gland, accounting for 1% of all head and neck cancers. ACC may have a long-term poor prognosis, as about 40% of radically treated patients will recur locoregionally and up to 60% will develop distant metastasis. Factors influencing risk of recurrence have been well studied, but few data exist about prognostic factors in Recurrent/Metastatic (RM) setting. Moreover, treatment of RM ACC is often a challenge for clinicians, in the context of a rare disease, which may have an indolent clinical behavior or less frequently a quicker growth and with a paucity of available clinical trials. This review critically analyzes pathological and molecular prognostic factors in RM ACC and make an overview on actual therapeutic choices and future direction of therapy. Recognized prognostic factors in RM ACC are the presence and site of distant metastasis (lung vs other), the presence of nodal metastasis and of extranodal extension, skull base recurrence, disease free interval, lymphovascular invasion, solid histotypes and grading of disease, and the presence of mutation of NOTCH1 family, PI3K, and TP53. Due to disappointing results with chemotherapy, new approaches are under study, also on the basis of biomolecular research. Ongoing clinical trials are evaluating treatment targeting MYB and NOTCH1 alterations, immunotherapy or combination of targeted treatments and immune checkpoint inhibitors.

Prognosis and management of recurrent and/or metastatic head and neck adenoid cystic carcinoma

Bossi P.
2021-01-01

Abstract

Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is a rare tumor, usually arising in the salivary gland, accounting for 1% of all head and neck cancers. ACC may have a long-term poor prognosis, as about 40% of radically treated patients will recur locoregionally and up to 60% will develop distant metastasis. Factors influencing risk of recurrence have been well studied, but few data exist about prognostic factors in Recurrent/Metastatic (RM) setting. Moreover, treatment of RM ACC is often a challenge for clinicians, in the context of a rare disease, which may have an indolent clinical behavior or less frequently a quicker growth and with a paucity of available clinical trials. This review critically analyzes pathological and molecular prognostic factors in RM ACC and make an overview on actual therapeutic choices and future direction of therapy. Recognized prognostic factors in RM ACC are the presence and site of distant metastasis (lung vs other), the presence of nodal metastasis and of extranodal extension, skull base recurrence, disease free interval, lymphovascular invasion, solid histotypes and grading of disease, and the presence of mutation of NOTCH1 family, PI3K, and TP53. Due to disappointing results with chemotherapy, new approaches are under study, also on the basis of biomolecular research. Ongoing clinical trials are evaluating treatment targeting MYB and NOTCH1 alterations, immunotherapy or combination of targeted treatments and immune checkpoint inhibitors.
2021
Adenoid cystic carcinoma
Head and neck tumor
Prognosis
Rare tumor
Recurrence and metastatic disease
Salivary gland carcinoma
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11699/80939
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