Significant cross talk occurs between inflammation and coagulation. Thus, coagulopathy is common in sepsis, potentially aggravating the prognosis. Initially, septic patients tend to exhibit a prothrombotic state through extrinsic pathway activation, cytokine-induced coagulation amplification, anticoagulant pathways suppression, and fibrinolysis impairment. In late sepsis stages, with the establishment of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), hypocoagulability ensues. Traditional laboratory findings of sepsis, including thrombocytopenia, increased prothrombin time (PT) and fibrin degradation products (FDPs), and decreased fibrinogen, only present late in the course of sepsis. A recently introduced definition of sepsis-induced coagulopathy (SIC) aims to identify patients at an earlier stage when changes to coagulation status are still reversible. Nonconventional assays, such as the measurement of anticoagulant proteins and nuclear material levels, and viscoelastic studies, have shown promising sensitivity and specificity in detecting patients at risk for DIC, allowing for timely therapeutic interventions. This review outlines current insights into the pathophysiological mechanisms and diagnostic options of SIC.

Sepsis-Induced Coagulopathy: An Update on Pathophysiology, Biomarkers, and Current Guidelines

Piovani D.;
2023-01-01

Abstract

Significant cross talk occurs between inflammation and coagulation. Thus, coagulopathy is common in sepsis, potentially aggravating the prognosis. Initially, septic patients tend to exhibit a prothrombotic state through extrinsic pathway activation, cytokine-induced coagulation amplification, anticoagulant pathways suppression, and fibrinolysis impairment. In late sepsis stages, with the establishment of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), hypocoagulability ensues. Traditional laboratory findings of sepsis, including thrombocytopenia, increased prothrombin time (PT) and fibrin degradation products (FDPs), and decreased fibrinogen, only present late in the course of sepsis. A recently introduced definition of sepsis-induced coagulopathy (SIC) aims to identify patients at an earlier stage when changes to coagulation status are still reversible. Nonconventional assays, such as the measurement of anticoagulant proteins and nuclear material levels, and viscoelastic studies, have shown promising sensitivity and specificity in detecting patients at risk for DIC, allowing for timely therapeutic interventions. This review outlines current insights into the pathophysiological mechanisms and diagnostic options of SIC.
2023
coagulation
disseminated intravascular coagulation
guidelines
laboratory evaluation
sepsis
sepsis-induced coagulopathy
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11699/81265
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