Gasdermins (GSDMs) are proteins primarily involved in pyroptosis, among other cellular functions. This Review provides a comprehension summary of GSDM biology, focusing on the gastrointestinal tract and addressing clinical implications and future research.Since the identification and characterization of gasdermin (GSDM) D as the main effector of inflammatory regulated cell death (or pyroptosis), literature on the GSDM family of pore-forming proteins is rapidly expanding, revealing novel mechanisms regulating their expression and functions that go beyond pyroptosis. Indeed, a growing body of evidence corroborates the importance of GSDMs within the gastrointestinal system, underscoring their critical contributions to the pathophysiology of gastrointestinal cancers, enteric infections and gut mucosal inflammation, such as inflammatory bowel disease. However, with this increase in knowledge, several important and controversial issues have arisen regarding basic GSDM biology and its role(s) during health and disease states. These include critical questions centred around GSDM-dependent lytic versus non-lytic functions, the biological activities of cleaved versus full-length proteins, the differential roles of GSDM-expressing mucosal immune versus epithelial cells, and whether GSDMs promote pathogenic or protective effects during specific disease settings. This Review provides a comprehensive summary and interpretation of the current literature on GSDM biology, specifically focusing on the gastrointestinal tract, highlighting the main controversial issues and their clinical implications, and addressing future areas of research to unravel the specific role(s) of this intriguing, yet enigmatic, family of proteins.

The gasdermin protein family: emerging roles in gastrointestinal health and disease

Armuzzi, Alessandro;
2023-01-01

Abstract

Gasdermins (GSDMs) are proteins primarily involved in pyroptosis, among other cellular functions. This Review provides a comprehension summary of GSDM biology, focusing on the gastrointestinal tract and addressing clinical implications and future research.Since the identification and characterization of gasdermin (GSDM) D as the main effector of inflammatory regulated cell death (or pyroptosis), literature on the GSDM family of pore-forming proteins is rapidly expanding, revealing novel mechanisms regulating their expression and functions that go beyond pyroptosis. Indeed, a growing body of evidence corroborates the importance of GSDMs within the gastrointestinal system, underscoring their critical contributions to the pathophysiology of gastrointestinal cancers, enteric infections and gut mucosal inflammation, such as inflammatory bowel disease. However, with this increase in knowledge, several important and controversial issues have arisen regarding basic GSDM biology and its role(s) during health and disease states. These include critical questions centred around GSDM-dependent lytic versus non-lytic functions, the biological activities of cleaved versus full-length proteins, the differential roles of GSDM-expressing mucosal immune versus epithelial cells, and whether GSDMs promote pathogenic or protective effects during specific disease settings. This Review provides a comprehensive summary and interpretation of the current literature on GSDM biology, specifically focusing on the gastrointestinal tract, highlighting the main controversial issues and their clinical implications, and addressing future areas of research to unravel the specific role(s) of this intriguing, yet enigmatic, family of proteins.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11699/83965
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