Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is the most common valve disease in the western world and recently emerged as a possible substrate for sudden cardiac death (SCD). It is estimated an annual risk of sudden cardiac death of 0.2 to 1.9% mostly caused by complex ventricular arrhythmias (VA). Several mechanisms have been recognized as potentially responsible for arrhythmia onset in MVP, resulting from the combination of morpho-functional abnormality of the mitral valve, structural substrates (regional myocardial hypertrophy, fibrosis, Purkinje fibers activity, inflammation), and mechanical stretch. Echocardiography plays a central role in MVP diagnosis and assessment of severity of regurgitation. Several abnormalities detectable by echocardiography can be prognostic for the occurrence of VA, from morphological alteration including leaflet redundancy and thickness, mitral annular dilatation, and mitral annulus disjunction (MAD), to motion abnormalities detectable with "Pickelhaube" sign. Additionally, speckle-tracking echocardiography may identify MVP patients at higher risk for VA by detection of increased mechanical dispersion. On the other hand, cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) has the capability to provide a comprehensive risk stratification combining the identification of morphological and motion alteration with the detection of myocardial replacement and interstitial fibrosis, making CMR an ideal method for arrhythmia risk stratification in patients with MVP. Finally, recent studies have suggested a potential role in risk stratification of new techniques such as hybrid PET-MR and late contrast enhancement CT. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the mitral valve prolapse syndrome with a focus on the role of imaging in arrhythmic risk stratification.

Imaging for the assessment of the arrhythmogenic potential of mitral valve prolapse

Catapano, Federica;Francone, Marco;
2023-01-01

Abstract

Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is the most common valve disease in the western world and recently emerged as a possible substrate for sudden cardiac death (SCD). It is estimated an annual risk of sudden cardiac death of 0.2 to 1.9% mostly caused by complex ventricular arrhythmias (VA). Several mechanisms have been recognized as potentially responsible for arrhythmia onset in MVP, resulting from the combination of morpho-functional abnormality of the mitral valve, structural substrates (regional myocardial hypertrophy, fibrosis, Purkinje fibers activity, inflammation), and mechanical stretch. Echocardiography plays a central role in MVP diagnosis and assessment of severity of regurgitation. Several abnormalities detectable by echocardiography can be prognostic for the occurrence of VA, from morphological alteration including leaflet redundancy and thickness, mitral annular dilatation, and mitral annulus disjunction (MAD), to motion abnormalities detectable with "Pickelhaube" sign. Additionally, speckle-tracking echocardiography may identify MVP patients at higher risk for VA by detection of increased mechanical dispersion. On the other hand, cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) has the capability to provide a comprehensive risk stratification combining the identification of morphological and motion alteration with the detection of myocardial replacement and interstitial fibrosis, making CMR an ideal method for arrhythmia risk stratification in patients with MVP. Finally, recent studies have suggested a potential role in risk stratification of new techniques such as hybrid PET-MR and late contrast enhancement CT. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the mitral valve prolapse syndrome with a focus on the role of imaging in arrhythmic risk stratification.
2023
Arrhythmogenic mitral valve prolapse
Cardiac imaging technique
Computed tomography
Magnetic resonance
Mitral valve prolapse
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11699/84616
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