Purpose: To simulate pars plana vitrectomy in porcine eyes ex-vivo using intraoperative devices and to evaluate viability of retinal cells. Methods: 25 enucleated porcine eyes were divided in following groups Group A) No surgery control: Group B) Sham surgery; Group C) Cytotoxic control; Group D) Surgery with residues; Group E) Surgery with minimal residues. The retina was extracted from each eye bulb and the cell viability was determined by MTT assay. The in vitro cytotoxicity of each used compounds was tested on ARPE-19 cells. Results: No cytotoxicity was detected in retinal samples in groups A, B and E. Samples from eye bulbs that had undergone surgery with minimal removal of residues (group D) and cytotoxic controls (group C) showed high retinal cytotoxicity. The simulation of vitrectomy indicated that the combined use of compounds does not affect retinal cells viability if all the compounds are properly removed, whereas the cytotoxicity detected in group D may suggest that the presence and accumulation of the residues of the compounds used intraoperatively could negatively impact retinal viability. Conclusions: The present study demonstrate the crucial role of an optimal removal of the intraoperative devices used in eye surgery to ensure safety to the patient.
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